Science Concepts and Assessment
CONCEPT – investigating, exploring, researching
CONCEPT – analysing and interpreting data
CONCEPT – influences on life today
CONCEPT –science explanation and communication
|Animals Including Humans||Animals Including Humans||Animals Including Humans||Animals Including Humans||Animals Including Humans||Animals Including Humans|
|Everyday Materials||Uses of Everyday materials||Rocks||States of Matter||Properties and changes of materials|
|Seasonal changes||Living things and their habitats||Living Things and their habitats||Living things and their habitatsEarth in Space||Living things and their habitats|
|Forces & magnets||Forces|
|Evolution & Inheritance|
|By the end of Year 2||By the end of Year 4||By the end of Year 6|
|Approaches to enquiry||Children should be helped to develop their understanding of scientific ideas by using different types of scientific enquiry to answer their own questions, including (1) observing changes over a period of time, (2) noticing patterns, (3) grouping and classifying things, (4) carrying out simple comparative tests and (5) finding things out using secondary sources of information.||Children should ask their own questions about what they observe and make some decisions about which types of scientific enquiry are likely to be the best ways of answering them, including (1) observing changes over time, (2) noticing patterns, (3) grouping and classifying things, (4) carrying out simple comparative and fair tests and (5) finding things out using secondary sources of information.
|Children should select the most appropriate ways to answer science questions using different types of scientific enquiry, including (1) observing changes over different periods of time, (2) noticing patterns, (3) grouping and classifying things, (4) carrying out comparative and fair tests and (5) finding things out using a wide range of secondary sources of information.
|Working Scientifically||Planning||• asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways||• asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
• setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
|• planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary|
|Observing||• observing closely, using simple equipment
• performing simple tests
• identifying and classifying
|• making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers||• taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate|
|Recording||• gathering and recording data to help in answering questions||• gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
• recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
|• recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs
• reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
|Concluding||• using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions||• reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
• identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
• using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings
|· reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results. in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations|
|Evaluating||• using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements, and raise further questions.||• using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests.
• identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments
Materials/ Rocks/states of matter
|By the end of Year 2||By the end of Year 4||By the end of Year 6|
Can identify and name different familiar materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water and rock
Can sort objects according to the materials from which they are made
Can describe the simple properties of a variety of materials, e.g. hard/soft; stretchy/stiff; shiny/dull; rough/smooth; bendy/not bendy; waterproof/not waterproof; absorbent/not absorbent; opaque/transparent
Can identify at least two properties in a material using simple vocabulary correctly e.g. hard/soft; stretchy/stiff; shiny/dull; rough/smooth; bendy/not bendy; waterproof/not waterproof; absorbent/not absorbent; opaque/transparent
Can recognise that an object like a spoon, a coat or a toy can be made from different materials and suggest why.
|Can name a wide variety of materials (extending range from Y1), e.g. wood, metal (iron, steel, copper, aluminium), plastic, leather, glass, brick, rock (contrasting examples like chalk and granite), cotton, wool, paper and cardboard
Can describe how materials have been used to make different objects, including objects made of more than one material
Can describe how their actions, e.g. push, pull, twist, squash, cause the shape of solid objects to change
Can explain how varying their actions (applying a larger force) affects how an object changes shape, e.g. ‘if I pull my sock hard it stretches and gets longer’
Can identify that not all plastics are the same and link the specific properties of different types of plastic to their use for different purposes, e.g. cling film wrapping, carrier bags, water bottles, scissors, tables and chairs
Can identify why certain materials are used for specific purposes. Focus on properties that make a material useful, e.g.
· Can identify and compare materials that might be used for certain purposes, deciding which would be best, e.g. which material would make the best…coat for a rainy day?
|Can compare and group different kinds of rocks (used in familiar buildings / contexts) on the basis of their appearance and simple properties, e.g. whether they have visible crystals or not, whether they have fossils in them or not, whether they are permeable or impermeable, their durability and evidence of erosion.
Can describe (in simple terms) how fossils are formed when things that have lived are trapped within certain rocks.
Can explain (in simple terms) that soils are made up from rocks that have been broken down into tiny particles by weather and erosion and that this is combined with organic matter, such as dead vegetation and animal bones.
Can describe similarities and differences between soils of different type (some from the locality).
|Can compare and group a variety of materials according to whether they are solids, liquids and gases.
Can describe properties of typical solids, liquids and gases
Can identify a range of materials as solid based on their properties; including those that flow like a liquid e.g. sand, flour and those that are not rigid, e.g. sponge, fabrics, flexible plastics.
Can explain how we know a gas is present, even though it cannot be seen, e.g. gas in fizzy drinks, gas inside a balloon, gas contained in soils and rocks.
Can describe what happens as water is heated to boiling point.
Can use terms associated with the water cycle, e.g. water vapour, evaporation, condensation
Can give examples of changes of state where changes are reversible, e.g. freezing flavoured water to make lollies, making ice cream, melting and cooling chocolate to make crispy cakes
Can explain that water evaporates at a faster rate if temperatures are higher, washing drying on line / e.g. puddles on playground over radiator.
|Understand and can use science vocabulary to describe properties, e.g. relative hardness, permeability, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets
Can carry out comparative tests of specific properties of materials and order results, e.g. relative transparency of different materials – variety of transparent, translucent and opaque materials…
Know that some materials dissolve, while others do not dissolve and give examples.
Recognise degrees of solubility and how this might change, e.g. as temperature increases. Identify when a solution is saturated and explain why this happens (in terms of particles) Consider including dissolving in Y4 too (but ensure that learning does not directly repeat in Y5
Can describe how to retrieve dissolved solids from a solution (reversible change). Understand ways that the rate of evaporation to retrieve a dissolved solid can be slowed or increased.
Can describe ways of separating materials from a liquid that have not dissolved, e.g. by filtering or sieving as appropriate.
Can separate a mixture containing a dissolved solid and two undissolved solids.
Knows that some changes are irreversible, e.g. burning and rusting.
Can select appropriate materials and structures to use as packaging for products, e.g. chocolates, for different purposes (more complex requirements), e.g. to protect chocolates from heat/water damage, breakage, changes in temperature (thermal insulation)
Dissolved gases as well as solids – how many burps in a bottle of lemonade?
Can describe examples of irreversible changes, identifying changes that have taken place, e.g. light and burn a candle, bake cakes, look for rusting metals around school
Plants/ Living things and their habitats/animals including humans/evolution & inheritance
|Can identify and name a number of common wild and garden plants found in the school grounds – 5 or more of each, including some familiar trees. Choose local named examples – about 20, e.g. dandelion, daisy, nettle, pansy, rose, sunflower, trees – willow, cherry
Can name the basic parts of flowering plants, e.g. flower, stem, trunk, leaf and root – picked up again in Y3
Understands that plants can be very different, e.g. that trees, grass, garden plants and indoor plants are all different types of plant
Can use the word deciduous to describe plants that lose their leaves in autumn and evergreen to describe plants that keep their leaves (and indicate some familiar examples) – relevant to seasonal change
Animals including humans
Can identify and name a number of common animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals – 5 or more of each (where possible), including familiar pets
Can identify and name familiar animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores, e.g. eagle, fox, cat, dog and lion as carnivores; sheep, cow, goldfish, giraffe as herbivores; human, hedgehog, pig, badger as omnivores.
Can name the body parts of some familiar animals, e.g. of a goldfish, frog, lizard, blackbird and dog and suggest how they are the same and different
Can compare the body parts of humans to those of other animals and suggest how they are similar and different
Can use correct vocabulary to name the main body parts (head, neck, arms, elbows, legs, knees, face, ears, eyes, hair, mouth teeth) and identify where they are on the body
|Can describe how seeds and bulbs change as they germinate and grow into mature plants
Can recognise that different seeds and bulbs grow into different types of plant
Can use key vocabulary to describe observations of changes that take place, e.g. shoot, seedling, grow, growing, (germination), names of parts of plant
Can explain in simple terms what happens if a plant has too little / too much water or light – use plants (already growing) such as pansies, runner beans, sweet peas and carry out simple comparative tests.
Can describe what plants need to keep them healthy.
Knows (and can describe) how to care for plants that they grow in a pot, container or planted garden
Notices that plants (in a raised bed or garden) grow better when they are watered regularly and kept weed free
Knows that plants that grow in different places in the school grounds are suited to the conditions there, e.g. meadow flowers in uncut areas, daisies and dandelions on school field, rushes and water lilies around pond.
Animals including humans
Can name the simple stages of different animal life cycles, as they describe how animals grow and change, e.g. caterpillar, pupae, butterfly or frog spawn, tadpole, frog or baby, toddler, child, teenager, adult – ensure these life cycles are not re-taught explicitly in Y5
Can show understanding that the offspring of a familiar animal will grow and change over time to become more like its parent – links to Y6 Evolution and inheritance
Can describe what animals, including humans, need to live and be healthy, e.g. understand that they need water, food and air
Can name a variety of animals that have different diets, describing them (where appropriate) as carnivores, herbivores and omnivores and talking about what they eat – builds on Y1, introduction of carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Links to Y3 Animals including Humans.
Can describe what humans need to keep them fit and healthy and give relevant examples from their own lives. Links to Y3 Animals including Humans.
Living things and their habitats
Can compare a variety of objects and describe the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive
Can identify living things that live in familiar local habitats and say how they are suited to that habitat
Can describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, i.e. food, water and shelter
Can identify and name a variety of plants and animals in familiar, local habitats – expect greater variety in naming, building on those plants and animals named in Y1
Can identify and name different sources of food, e.g. for familiar animals such as hedgehog, fox, snail, wild birds
Can describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain
Construct a simple food chain that includes humans (e.g. grass, cow, human).
Compare animals in familiar habitats with animals found in less familiar habitats, for example, on the seashore, in woodland, in the ocean, in the rainforest.
|Can name the basic parts of flowering plants, e.g. flower, stem, trunk, leaf and root (building on Y1), recognising examples in contrasting plants, e.g. on the class tree, buddleia bush, daisy/dandelion plant.
Can identify and describe the jobs done by different parts of flowering plants, e.g. flower, stem, trunk, leaf, root and fruit (including nuts and seeds).
Recognise that different plants require different conditions and react in different ways when they don’t have enough light, water, nutrients or room to grow.
Can explain, using accurate vocabulary, what happens when plants don’t have enough light, water, nutrients or room to grow.
Can describe how water is transported through a plant, entering through the roots and leaving through the leaves.
Notice that flowers play an important part in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal – links to reproduction and life cycles in Y5. Ensure that examples are different from those planned for Y5.
Animals including humans
Can explain that animals, including humans, have different requirements for nutrition (food) – referring back to Y1 animals that are carnivores, omnivores or herbivores
Can identify different types of food and organise into basic food groups, e.g. dairy and eggs, meats, grains, fruit and vegetables – builds on Y1 and links to Y6 Animals including Humans
Can recognise the need for a balanced diet for good health, e.g. that a little chocolate is good, but too much can lead to health problems, but fruit and vegetables can safely be eaten in greater quantity links to Y6 Animals including Humans
Can explain that animals including humans have skeletons of different types – discussion might include exo-skeleton of familiar insects
Can identify and describe function of parts of skeleton, e.g. backbone and muscles – support, skull and ribcage – protection, long bones – movement
|Use appropriate vocabulary as they identify and name familiar animals and plants.
Can suggest different ways of grouping living things, e.g. as flowering / non-flowering plants; vertebrate animals as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and invertebrate animals as snails and slugs, worms, spiders and insects.
Can suggest ways that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things. Give positive and negative examples of human (their) impact, e.g. planting a bumblebee friendly garden (appropriate planting – links to planting programme), dropping lots of litter on a local beach / in a park.
Can use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment. Links to Y6
Animals including humans
Identify and name the main body parts associated with the digestive system, and use the correct vocabulary, i.e. mouth, tongue, teeth, oesophagus, stomach and small and large intestine
describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
comparing the teeth of carnivores and herbivores, and suggesting reasons for differences
Know what damages teeth.
construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey
|Can compare the life cycles of plants and animals in their local environment with other plants and animals around the world
Can describe the life cycle of a variety of plants, naming the stages i.e. germination, growth, flowering, fertilisation, pollination, seed dispersal.
Can explain why each stage of the life cycle of a plant is important to the reproduction of plants.
Can use scientific vocabulary to name and describe reproductive parts of a flower, their function and the process of reproduction, e.g. flower, petals, carpel, stamen, ovary, pollen, seed, fruit.
Explain that different plants are pollinated in different ways, i.e. insects, wind, water, mechanical, and give real examples.
Can describe the life cycle of a variety of animals, e.g. several familiar and less familiar mammals – cow/sheep, dog/cat, hedgehog/squirrel, polar bear/killer whale, an amphibian other than a frog – newt, several familiar and less familiar insects – bumble bee, butterfly, woodlouse, spider, ladybird, several familiar and less familiar birds – blackbird, robin, duck,chickens, owl, peregrine falcon.
Can compare the life cycles of different animals, recognising similarities and differences, e.g. typical mammal compare with an insect (ladybird) and or amphibian (newt).
Recognise and use term metamorphosis for lifecycles of insects and amphibians.
Know about different types of reproduction, including sexual and asexual reproduction in plants, and sexual reproduction in animals.
Can describe the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction and give examples, e.g.
Know that some plants have male and female flowers, e.g. holly, courgette, marrow, horse chestnut tree, holly tree, while others have flowers with male and female plants, e.g. pansy, sunflower, daffodil, rose, poppy, daisy.
Can describe how plants reproduce asexually, e.g. by throwing out runners (e.g. strawberry, blackberry), and that gardeners can generate new plants by taking leaf, stem or root cuttings from a parent plant.
Can describe sexual reproduction (as part of the life cycle) in a variety of animals.
Include; mating rituals – birds, mammals; male and female roles in reproduction – raising young (as part of the reproductive cycle); length of gestation…
Know that some animals (can) reproduce asexually, e.g. stick insects, earthworms.
|Can describe how/why living things are classified into broad groups, i.e. according to their observable characteristics – e.g. there are several different varieties of prunus (cherry) trees around the school grounds. Their leaves are similar, but there are differences in flower structure (multi petals or single petal) and shape of tree.
Can use the correct vocabulary to describe types of animals, e.g. amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, vertebrates, invertebrates, arachnid, mollusc, insect, crustacean – building on Y5
Can give reasons for classifying plants based on specific characteristics.
Can give reasons for classifying animals based on specific characteristics
Animals including humans
Can describe how the heart works using the correct vocabulary.
Can describe how the circulatory system works using the correct vocabulary.
Can describe what happens to the heart when a person exercise
Can compare graphs of different heart rates and discuss how they are different or the same.
Can describe what is needed for a balanced diet, identifying the types of foods needed. Building on Y3
Can give examples of how a diet needs to be adjusted in certain circumstances e.g. an athlete, for a vegetarian, a marathon runner, a diabetic or a coeliac.
Can describe what happened to a person when they don’t have the appropriate lifestyle including the use of drugs.
Evolution & Inheritance
Know about the work of palaeontologists such as Mary Anning and about how Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace developed their ideas on evolution
Can explain, in more detail, the formation of fossils of various types (including dinosaurs) – building on introduction in Y3 – rocks
Can describe what fossils tell scientists about living things that lived millions of years ago, but are now extinct or have evolved.
Know that characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring, for instance by considering different breeds of dogs, and what happens when, for example, labradors are crossed with poodles
Know that variation in offspring over time can make animals more or less able to survive in particular environments
Identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution.
Seasonal change/light/forces/sound/electricity/Earth in Space
Can name the four seasons of the year
Can describe, in simple terms, differences between the seasons, e.g. by noticing differences in a series of images
Can notice and describe changes they observe taking place in the natural environment around school, e.g. to a familiar deciduous tree
Can name different types of weather, e.g. sunny, windy, rainy, cold, hot, foggy, icy
Can describe how they feel in specific weather conditions
Can make observations of weather over time and record these using a simple chart
Can make observations and talk about changing light and day length.
Can explain that some light is needed if we are to see anything, i.e. that a ‘dark’ room usually has some light in it, so we can see objects dimly.
Can explain that light reflects from surfaces and this enables us to see – include here objects that reflect light differently e.g. shiny/reflective surfaces and different colours Links to Y6
Can describe how a shadow is formed, i.e. by an opaque object blocking the light Links to Y6
Can describe what happens to shadows when a light source moves or the distance between the light source and the object changes.
Links to Y6
Know that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect their eyes
Can use correct vocabulary when describing how magnets work, e.g. ‘North’ and ‘South’ poles, attract / repel, attraction / repulsion.
Can make predictions and / or describe what will happen when like and different poles of two magnets are placed next to one another.
Can explain that not all metal objects are magnetic, i.e. that objects made of iron and steel are magnetic (age appropriate – there are others) while most other metals, including copper, brass and aluminium, are not.
Can compare how objects move over different surfaces, e.g. rolling a car, sliding a box loaded with weights, and describe what makes a difference.- links to Y5
Notices that some forces need contact between two objects, e.g. kicking a ball, opening a door, pushing a swing, but magnetic force can act at a distance.- links to Y5
Can use appropriate vocabulary related to sound, e.g. vibrate, pitch, volume, comparatives – loud/soft, gentle/strong, louder/softer, higher/lower, as they describe and explain their ideas.
Can describe how a sound is made when an object vibrates, e.g. when a guitar string is plucked…, or when a drum skin is hit…. It vibrates, making a sound.
Can explain that we hear sounds because sound travels through a medium, i.e. a solid, a liquid or a gas, to our ears.
Can describe in simple terms how our ears enable us to hear.
Recognises that sound can be insulated by certain materials, e.g. if we close the door it reduces the noise from the corridor.
Describe how the pitch of an instrument can be changed and identify a pattern, e.g. the longer the string the lower the note, the tighter the string the lower the note.
Describe how the volume of sounds can change and recognise that e.g. strong vibrations produce louder sounds.
Identify common appliances that run on electricity by listing a number of common objects that need electricity to function.
Construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers – Link to Y6
Associate metals with being good conductors whilst recognising some common conductors and insulators. Show understanding through explaining the differences – Link to Y6
Identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery – Link to Y6
Observe patterns e.g. bulbs get brighter if more cells are added or that some materials can/can’t be used to connect across a gap in a circuit. They may explain what happens when extra components are added to a circuit with the same battery – Link to Y6
Recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit – Link to Y6
|Earth in space
Can describe how the view we have of the Moon changes over the course of a (lunar) month. Uses correct vocabulary to name Moon phases.
Can name the planets and identify their order in the solar system. Uses a mnemonic of their own design to remind them of their order.
Knows that planets orbit the Sun and that they take different amounts of time to do so.
Can describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
Understands, through modelling, the relative sizes of different bodies in the solar system, e.g. compares Sun and Earth, Mercury and Saturn etc.
Describe how the position of the Earth, relative to the Sun, affects the seasons on Earth.
Explain that the Earth rotates and that this causes day and night and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky
Recognises that the existence of time zones around the Earth makes a difference to the time of day it is in other countries, e.g. compare UK to other known countries, like Sierra Leone. Links to light in Y6
Can explain the force of gravity in simple terms, as the ‘pull’ that acts on objects which fall towards the Earth.
Can identify and describe the effects of other forces that act between moving surfaces, i.e. friction, air resistance and water resistance.
Can describe how simple mechanisms ‘make work easier’ and give examples, e.g. gears on a bike, a lever to open a tin, nut crackers…
Explain that we see things because light travels from the object or Is reflected from the object travels into our eyes.
Can understand that light appears to travel in straight lines.
Explain what happens when light is shone on an object.
Explain how an object is seen i.e. Light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes.
Describing how light behaves to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them. E.g. I know that light travels in a straight line and when it is blocked, it casts a shadow in the shape of the object that has blocked it.
Describing the size of shadows when the position of the light sources changes. E.g. Explaining why it is that the lower the light source is positioned, the longer the shadow of the object is.
Builds on Y3
Associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit. May use some scientific vocabulary: electrical current, amp, volts – builds on Y4
Draw simple, circuit and parallel diagrams using recognised symbols including lights, wires, switches and cells – builds on Y4
Understand and explain different types of electricity: static electricity electric shocks, force fields
Compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches using some scientific vocabulary that could include: current, voltage, amps, bulb ratings
Construct simple series and parallel circuits to help them answer questions about what happens – builds on Y4